Direct discrimination occurs when individuals or organizations specifically exclude people, withhold benefits that are available to others, or impose extra burdens that are not imposed on others, without a legitimate reason.
Subtle discrimination occurs where there is no intent to discriminate but conduct has a discriminatory effect.
Systemic discrimination occurs when a culture of discrimination pervades the workplace, where discrimination is a regular feature of interactions and processes or happens over a long period of time and policies, rules or procedures that apply to everyone appear neutral on the surface but put some individuals or groups at a disadvantage.
Discrimination in the workplace – whether subtle or overt – can lead to increased conflict, reduced morale and productivity, mental health issues for the victim, and possible legal consequences for the employer.
For each of the following examples, consider the potential short and long-term consequences for the person or people being discriminated against.